论文题目(英文): America’s Strategic Pivot to Asia—the Causes, Measures, and Impact on US-China Relations
论文关键词(中文): 美国重返亚太战略, 中美关系
论文关键词(英文): America strategic pivot to Asia, US-China relations
President Obama has commenced the phased withdrawal of US troops from Iraq ever since he took office in 2009, not only to fulfill his campaign promise, but also to rebalance America’s strategic pivot toward the Asia Pacific. Regional flashpoints like North Korea’s nuclear program, the South China Sea dispute and the Diaoyu Islands dispute provide ideal opportunities to intervene in Asian affairs, strengthen its military presence, revitalize traditional alliances, develop new partnerships, and engage with multilateral institutions. Trans-Pacific Partnership is used to establish standards, profit from the booming Asian market, and stimulate US economic recovery. By signing the Treaty on Amity and Cooperation in Southeast Asia and joining the East Asia Summit, America has enhanced its cooperation with ASEAN. As for US-China relations, the US has taken a hardline on Beijing with regard to a series of trade issues like anti-dumping/anti-subsidy duties and put pressure on Beijing to appreciate RMB. Given the frequency of its joint military exercises with allies and partners in China’s neighborhood, America’s pivot to Asia can be interpreted by China and some Asian states as a Cold War-style containment. This thesis will try to analyze the causes for Obama’s Asia policy, the measures taken by the US government and the impact on US-China relations. The authors believes that America’s rebalance toward Asia is a comprehensive strategy and is not completely targeted at China. The Pacific is large enough for US-China interdependence and peaceful coexistence, and China should not overreact to America’s pivot to Asia.
论文题目(英文): How America and Africa View China’s Economic Involvement in Africa, A Comparative Study
论文关键词(中文): 中国在非洲经济活动, 美国观点, 非洲一些国家观点, 中国在非洲经济活动之形象提高
论文关键词(英文): China’s African economic involvement, America’s view, African countries’ view, China’s image–improving
This paper is to compare America’s view on China’s African economic involvement with some African countries’ view. America’s view is reflected by analyzing two big American newspapers and five major think tanks, and the time period is four years from 2009-2012. They are the New York Times, the Washington Post, Brookings, Council on Foreign Relation (CFR), Center for Strategic undefinedamp; International Studies (CSIS), American Enterprise Institute (AEI), and the Heritage Foundation.
Regarding some African countries’ view of China’s African economic involvement, there are four African countries which are specifically analyzed and other countries that are also mentioned. Nigeria, Zambia, Uganda and the South Africa are cases for analysis. Other countries include Rwanda, Malawi, Lesotho, Kenya, Liberia, and others. And articles used in analysis are all from these countries’ websites or websites that focus on the whole continent.
First articles from newspapers, think tanks, and websites will be analyzed. Some analyzing results are to be quantified. Then attitude of American newspapers and think tanks will be compared with that of some African countries. And in analyzing some African countries’ attitude, certain countries will be used as cases to be studied.
After the analysis, Africa’s view presented is relatively comprehensive and with details. And its view is not all positive as expected though most African people view China’s African economic involvement positively. In contrast, America’s view is relatively narrow and its view is not all negative as expected. As a matter of fact, most of Americans view China’s economic involvement neutrally. Moreover, through the analysis, the paper not only presents both positive and negative views of Africans on China’s African economic involvement but also shows different expectations of African countries for their relationship with China.
In addition, the comparison of America’s view and Africa’s view is very helpful for China’s image-improving regarding its economic activities in Africa. At the end of the paper, the author puts forward some tentative suggestions.
论文题目(英文): Second Term Blues? Evolution of Presidencies from 1st to 2nd Terms – the Clinton and Bush Jr. Administrations
论文关键词(中文): 美国总统第二任, 政策议程, 立法成功率
论文关键词(英文): U.S. President second term, policy agenda, legislative success
To date when this study has been completed, the incumbent President Obama has already won the 2012 election, and what his second term would be like is a topic that has generated many discussions. Whereas there hasn’t been much scholarship studying presidential second terms, there has been a near consensus among scholars that two-term presidents tend to be less successful in their second terms, and terms like “second-term blues” have been frequently used to characterize the frustrating nature of presidential second terms.
To test whether such a consensus and several other related theories are empirically grounded, this study uses quantitative methods to analyze cases of the two most recent two-term presidents – Bill Clinton and George W. Bush, examining the evolution of their policy agenda as well as their legislative success from the first to the second term. The study has proved that the presidents in their second terms, among other things, did gravitate towards foreign policy more, and that they were likely to experience underachievement on the legislative front to some extent (although there were still many opportunities for them to seize). It has been rather difficult to pin down or generalize why it tends to be so from president to president. In the author’s opinion, legacies from the first term have had a considerable influence on both presidents’ second terms, whereas other factors such as hubris and mid-term losses may have affected them differently.
论文题目(英文): Governing When It’s Over: Lame-duck Presidents and Presidential Power, Truman to George W. Bush
论文关键词(中文): 跛脚鸭总统, 总统权力, 总统单边权力, 单边行动
论文关键词(英文): lame-duck president, presidential power, presidential unilateral power, unilateral action
It is conventional wisdom that lame-duck presidents, as the name suggests, have little political influence and therefore attract less scholarly interest. As a result, their place and significance in American politics have mostly passed without notice. Furthermore, when lame-duck presidents have been discussed, they have often been portrayed inaccurately or the discussion has been incomplete. The scholarly disinterest in as well as misrepresentations of lame-duck presidents actually stem from the presidency scholars’ overemphasis on a president’s “power to persuade”, while neglecting their formal powers to command.
This paper is an effort to fill the existing gap in the literature on lame-duck presidents as well as an attempt to challenge and revise the standard interpretations and prevailing misconceptions about lame-duck presidents in the modern era. The premise of this paper is that the nature of presidential power during a president’s final days in office is necessarily different from the rest of his presidency. In other words, when a lame-duck president’s political influence has been exhausted and his capacity to persuade depleted, he is often compelled to turn to and rely upon his unilateral presidential powers, which, by their very nature, serve as ideal policy tools for lame-duck presidents to pursue his personal interests as well as his policy preferences.
Taking advantage of the emerging theoretical emphasis on the president’s unilateral powers, my research focus is on presidential unilateral actions and policies of lame-duck presidents’ own making. By using three presidential unilateral actions as my indicators, i.e. executive orders, presidential proclamations, and presidential signing statements, I have discovered that, consistent with my expectations, there are generally more presidential unilateral actions from the lame-duck president’s last three months in office than from any other time during his entire presidency. In other words, if a president’s ability to persuade is severely limited, as the case in an administration’s waning days in office, his ability to command then becomes the key for effective governance. By looking at lame-duck presidents from three levels of analysis, this paper also adds new interpretations and understandings to the general scholarship on the presidency.
论文题目(英文): Why Couldn’t Obama Deliver More on Climate Change: A Two-level Game Approach
论文关键词(中文): 奥巴马气候政策, 双层博弈论, 国际国内政治互动
论文关键词(英文): Obama International Climate Policy, Two-Level Game Theory, Interaction of International and Domestic Politics
Ever since his inauguration in January 2009, U.S. President Barack Obama has stated his determination to actively deal with climate change and regain U.S. leadership in international climate negotiations on public occasions. In June, 2009, the American Clean Energy and Security Act was passed in the House, which showed certain domestic support for greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions reduction policies. In December 2009, President Obama personally attended the UN climate conference in Copenhagen, aiming to bring up a new international agreement to replace the Kyoto Protocol. After a meeting with leaders from China, India, South Africa and Brazil, Obama came up with the Copenhagen Accord with these leaders. Even though the Accord was not binding, it did include reduction targets for each country and receive acceptance from a majority of countries, basically achieving Obama’s original goal.
However, since the Senate announced it would not vote on the American Clean Energy and Security Act in 2010, the domestic opposition against a binding international climate agreement has become stronger and stronger. At the same time, President Obama’s enthusiasm for attending UN climate conferences dwindled and was replaced by his advocacy of holding meetings among smaller coalitions of countries such as Major Economies Forum to tackle climate change. In addition, bilateral and multilateral clean energy cooperation also became a major component of his international climate policy. All in all, all these policies being carried out have departed from his ambitious goal of regaining U.S. climate leadership in the world in that they adopt indirect rather than direct means to drive the reduction of GHG emissions.
Applying the two-level game theory, the thesis attempts to detect the driving forces behind President Obama’s international climate policy by examining the U.S. political institutions and the policy preferences of the President, Congress, interest groups and the public. The conclusion is that Obama’s international climate policy result from the interaction of international and domestic politics (and especially the domestic politics). Firstly, Obama’s advocacy of talks among smaller coalitions of countries with no agenda to include mandatory GHG reduction targets is mainly due to the strong opposition from Congress and interest groups with high stakes in fossil fuel energy; secondly, the U.S. has actively engaged in bilateral and multilateral clean energy cooperation, which is supported by environmental groups, clean energy industries and the public; finally, the strategies adopted by chief negotiators (or the President) are able to enlarge the groups who support the President’s international climate policy so that it is more easily ratified.
Based on Robert D. Putnam’s and Helen V. Milner’s two-level game theories, the thesis adds the analysis of public opinion and improves the arguments on international influences on domestic politics, trying to compensate for the existing research’s lack of systematism and logical argumentation on international factors. Therefore, it is sincerely hoped that the explanation of Obama’s international climate policy in his first term and the prediction of the policy in his second term will be more scientific under the thesis’ theoretical framework, so that a little contribution can be made to the research on the subject both home and abroad.
论文题目(英文): A Self-Governing Utopia: Thoreau’s Conceptualization of Government in Comparison with Lao-tze’s Political Thought
论文关键词(中文): 梭罗老子政治思想研究, 个人为中心的自治
论文关键词(英文): Thoreau Political Conceptualization Lao-tze, Individual-Oriented Self-Governance
Thoreau Studies has been a seasoned and fruitful field of academic pursuit. Yet the fundamental questions regarding Thoreau’s political thought, like, what are the essentials of his politics, what is the nature of Thoreau’s political conceptualization, are habitually merely touched upon, either in a concise and holistic fashion, or in a segmented and detailed approach 1. This thesis ventures to construct a well-branched framework of Thoreau’s politics combining the two approaches, pillared up by textual analysis of his related works, biographical studies, and intellectual context analysis. The disputable oriental entanglement of Thoreau’s thought should not be left unconsidered here. Indeed, Thoreau’s well-known utterance that “government is the best which governs not at all”, which carries on Jeffersonian legacy preaching that “government is the best which governs the least”, appears to echo the Lao-tze’s notion of “action without deed”. Sided by the fact that Thoreau repeatedly cited Confucian teachings in his works, one is apt to ponder: Is the echoing a reflection of the inherent, in-depth convergence between the two? Or a misleading sign of their fundamental divergence? Consequently, a comparative studies based on textual analysis between Thoreau’s seemingly oriental twin in thought will be included to mirror Thoreau’s politics clearer. To sum up, this paper will try to construct a sketchy yet branched framework of Thoreau’s political thought, encompassing textual analysis of his related works, biographical studies, intellectual context analysis, and a comparative study with Lao-tze’s political conceptualization. This thesis finds Thoreau’s political framework on governance is inherently, based on Thoreau’s transcendental belief in individual capability of self-governance via self perfection efforts, an individual-oriented utopia. This individual-centered approach, not institutional-oriented approach, is closely related to his life experiences, and is consistent in a chronological sense. The seemingly Taoist notion of his turns out to be misleading façade of the inherent divergence between the two minds in politics, which in turn, telescopes the individual-centered thought of Thoreau’s. Meanwhile, though risk of imposing or politicizing, it is academically tempting to include his other works which are not so apparently political for an overall analysis. In so doing, several metaphors, the “bottomless” metaphor, “shoulder-sitting” metaphor and the “bean field” metaphor, while being illustrative in construction of Thoreau’s overall political notions centered on the governmental framework, arguably indicate that this road of metaphorical study of Thoreau’s political ideas among his not obviously political works is instrumental and productive. 1.The scope and methodology in Thoreau Studies encompass biographical studies, Literature, Philosophy, Culture Studies, and Political approach, etc. In terms of political approach, there is holistic and general study, segmented and detailed analysis, as well as a combination of commentary and analytical methods. Generally speaking, despite their merits, the holistic and general approach tends to be to concise, short, to reveal the densely branched thought tree of Thoreau’s; while the segmented and detailed approach is apt to be short of unity and structure. See the subsequent literature review part for details.
论文题目(英文): Individualism Inherited and Reconstructed: A Comparative Study of Ralph Waldo Emerson and John Dewey
论文关键词(中文): 个人主义思想, 爱默生约翰
论文关键词(英文): Individualism, Ralph Waldo Emerson, John Dewey
Nothing is more American than individualism. Individualism which originated in Europe witnessed its glorious enrichment and development in America. And it has penetrated every aspect of American culture as the core value. Characterized with indeterminate shape, individualism has gone through tremendous changes with social development. This thesis takes historical analysis and textual analysis as two main methods and makes the comparison between Emersonian individualism and Deweyan individualism, aiming to find whether there are any changes of the core characteristics marked on individualism from Emerson to Dewey and make a brief evaluation of Emersonian individualism and Deweyan individualism.
Based on the primary source, the representative works of Ralph Waldo Emerson and John Dewey, as well as the secondary source, the biographies and commentaries, this research is carried out along two lines: intellectual inheritance, the similarities of Emersonian individualism and Deweyan individualism and intellectual reconstruction, the differences between Emersonian individualism and Deweyan individualism and Dewey’s reconstruction in face of self-loss and confusion. Intellectual inheritance is focused on three major points, the significance of individual distinctiveness, the primacy of individual freedom and right, and the emphasis on experience; while intellectual reconstruction is centered on different stances of Emerson and Dewey on the role of religion and science in self-development as well as the relationship between individual and society, and Dewey’s two steps of reconstructing individualism, application of science and technique and creation of Great Community.
By comparing Emersonian individualism with Deweyan individualism, this thesis reaches conclusion that the core features of individualism remain intact with the social development. And Emersonian individualism is different from the old individualism. The new individualism promoted by Dewey is faced with a long process of development and its influence is hard to predict.
论文题目(英文): Transcendentalism and the Philosophy of Mind—A Comparative Study of Emerson and Wang Yangming
论文关键词(中文): 直觉, 真理, 本心统一超灵, 天理
论文关键词(英文): intuition, original, mind unity, oversoul, Principle of Nature
Ralph Waldo Emerson and Wang Yangming were prominent idealists in the West and East in their own era. As to Emerson who has been called an Orientalist, eastern philosophy and religions have been great inspirations. Wang Yangming, on the other hand, is one of the few Chinese Confucian philosophers who develops a comparatively complete idealistic theory on his own. Their philosophical differences are various and unsystematic and thus is not covered here. In this thesis, I will present to you that philosophically speaking, in their epistemology and cosmology, Wang Yangming and Emerson have something in common: the two thinkers both believe in human potential and share the faith in man’s intuition or “original mind”; both of them trust in the ultimate benevolence of nature and stress the unity of nature and mind; and they both believe in a super spirit, the oversoul. Their differences will not be covered here. I use mainly textual analysis and comparison to elaborate on my points.
Large amounts of studies have been done on Emerson and Wang Yangming, but none has been done on the comparison of the two. This writer is going to do the job.
The first commonality is their similar way to know the cosmic truths, or same epistemology. Emerson tries to approach truths of life and the universe through “Intuition”. He believes that the learning mechanism or ability of humans through which experience was acquired is intuitions of the mind itself, which are innate, and that everything in the intellect exists in the experience of the senses. Also, he asserts that although intuition is endowed with man’s private mind, it needs internal cultivation. We can find a similar term to Emerson’s intuition in Wang Yangming’s dictionary, that is, “original mind”. The original mind means the original and natural state of human mind. Wang asserts that “[k]nowledge is the original substance of the mind. The mind is naturally able to know.”He also believes in man’s internal cultivation.
Another important commonality between Emerson’s Transcendentalism and Wang Yaming’s Philosophy of the Mind is that they both stress the correspondence and unity of nature and mind and have the same cosmology. Emerson states that “the whole of nature is a metaphor of the human mind,” and treats nature as a “part of the whole” that activates the mind, and an access for man to communicate with God. Wang Yangming, on the other hand, also believes that “[m]an is the mind of the heaven and earth. Man forms one body with the heaven, the earth and everything.”
At last, Emerson’s doctrine of the “oversoul” which helps to unite the mind and nature is similar to what Wang Yanming terms “the Principle of Nature.” Emerson professes that the “oversoul” transcends all as the infinite law behind the universe, and individual souls partake of the “oversoul” and show the Supreme Being and perfection of it, which can explain the infinite and perfect intuition of man. The notion of the “oversoul” is nothing but a manifestation of Emerson’s belief in spirituality and mysticism. Wang’s Philosophy of the Mind also aims at the discovery of the highest principle—the “Principle of Nature”. Man “forms one body with the heaven, the earth and everything. The unity is a manifestation of an eternal being—all of them have the same “qi”, which is also another term for “Principle”, and exactly what Emerson terms “the oversoul.”
论文题目(英文): Women’s Empowerment in Disney Princess Collection Animation
论文关键词(中文): 女性赋权, 迪士尼公主系列动画电影, 行为模式和性格恋爱和婚姻, 女性的影响力
论文关键词(英文): Women’s Empowerment, Disney Princess Collection Animation, Behavior patterns and Personalities, Romance and Marriage
本论文研究了《白雪公主和七个小矮人》（1937），《灰姑娘》(1950), 《睡美人》(1959)，《小美人鱼》(1989) 《美女与野兽》(1991)，《公主与青蛙》(2009)和《长发公主》(2010) 七部迪士尼公主系列动画电影对妇女赋权的体现。论文首先在对妇女赋权的相关文献进行了综述的基础上给出了妇女赋权的适用定义，然后从自我、恋爱、影响力三个范围逐渐扩大的角度对七部影片进行分析与探讨。新的自我方面主要研究了七位公主的行为模式和性格由被动向主动的转变，他们逐渐开始工作，由被救者成为施救者，敢于反驳与反抗，不再总是通过哭泣示弱，具备了更多独立、领导能力等传统上被认为只有男性才具有的特点。在恋爱关系方面上，论文从三方面进行了论述，首先对女性外表的重要性的强调逐渐减少，女性不再被物化；后期的公主开始有了除恋爱和婚姻之外对事业的追求；以及他们对恋爱发展过程的越来越多的主动权。论文的第三个角度将视野进一步扩大，研究公主与电影中的敌对方、长辈、施助者、邻居朋友等四类人的互动中体现公主对其所处的社会的影响。分析体现出公主逐渐开始能对周围的人施加影响，对自己的生活和环境有了更多掌控，证明了他们的赋权。
This thesis aims to examine women’s empowerment in 7 selected Disney Princess Collection Animations: Snow White and the Seven Dwarfs (1937), Cinderella (1950), Sleeping Beauty (1959), the Little Mermaid (1989), Beauty and the Beast (1991), the Princess and the Frog (2009) and Tangled (2010). Measuring the princesses’ power against a working definition based on an extensive review of the literature on women’s empowerment, the study is unfolded from the perspectives of princesses’ “new self”, “new romance” and “new influence”.? New self refers to princesses’ behavior patterns and personalities’ transformation from rather passive to active, with more engagement in out-of-house employment, performance of rescue, obedience, less emotion displays of weakness and more occupation of traditional masculine traits. The new romance perspective witnesses the less stress on the princesses’ outward beauty thus less sexual objectification, the princesses’ more ambitions of self-realization beyond romance and marriage, and their more active role in the romantic relation. The New influence perspective targets the princesses’ interaction with other supporting characters, which mainly fall into 4 categories as enemies, parents, the mighty helper, and other acquaintances.? The discussion finds that the princesses gradually are able to exert influence upon people around them, thus has more control on her life and the community she lives within, which are important proof of their empowerment. The conclusion is that princesses from 1930s till now in the Disney animation are empowered, with more control on their life and the community they live within.
The significance of the animation lies in the normative restrictions of the materials, the time span of the collection that would witness the empowerment process with the aid of feminism theories, and the thesis’ more inclusive and comprehensive perspectives.
论文题目(英文): A Study of the Hollywood Elements in Chinese Language Cinema
论文关键词(中文): 好莱坞元素, 华语电影, 混合性理论
论文关键词(英文): Hollywood Elements, Chinese Language, Cinema Hybridity
Abstract: This thesis aims to dig out the Hollywood elements in Chinese language cinema by researching into four successful Chinese films, Crouching Tiger, Hidden Dragon (2000), Hero (2002), House of Flying Daggers (2004), and Kung Fu Hustle (2004), from the form and content, which is inscribed in hybridity theory that cultural elements in the hybridized cultural product are presented at two levels varying from form as surface level to content as deep-seated one.
After research, the thesis detects three major findings. For a start, the Hollywood elements do exist in the films. These films are Hollywoodized via employing Hollywood filmmaking modes at the formal level, specifically high-concept film mode and Hollywood’s storytelling mode, and also by integrating Hollywood heroic traits into protagonists at the content level. Besides, the Hollywood elements are constructed in the logic sequence from outside to inside in terms of filmmaking modes, which concern the way a film is produced from the outside perspective and reflect the pattern in which a film is told from the inside perspective. Finally, the Hollywood elements therein greatly contribute to the success of these Chinese language cinemas in U.S., due to the old familiar feelings produced by Hollywoodized storytelling mode and Hollywoodized heroic images, and higher visibility and greater profitability brought by Hollywood high-concept film mode, and therefore can pave the way for the international achievement of Chinese language cinemas with the predominantly worldwide influence of American culture, manifested by Hollywood in filmic arena.
The significance of the thesis lies in examining Hollywood elements in Chinese language cinema from hybridity theory due to the scarcity of research of Hollywood elements in Chinese language cinema and the paucity of use of hybridity theory in media studies. The research therefore offers a new perspective for culture studies and renders a better understanding of other cultures.
论文题目(英文): Is Post-racial Era Coming in the United States?
论文关键词(中文): 奥巴马当选, 种族歧视, 后种族时代电影, 白人种族框架, 黑人, 白人
论文关键词(英文): Obama’s election, post-racial era, racism films, white racial frame, the black, the white
After Barack Obama was elected the president of the United States, the term post-racial is frequently adopted by the media to advocate that race no longer matters in the United States. While others argue that race still play an important role in people’s daily life. Nowadays, few people are willing to express overt racist views given the contemporary social and political conditions. Few racist views or behaviors do not mean that racism no longer exists in the democratic country. Racism just exists in a more subtle and covert way. Today, the dominant ideology regarding race in the United States is still racism.
Film, as cultural artifact that carries the ideological message of the society, is supposed to reflect racism when it comes to the issue of race. Film is also said to be a kind of leading indicator of cultural change and variability in the area of race. Given the film’s role of indicator, it is assumed that great social event like the election of Obama should influence the depictions of African Americans.
This paper analyzes three inspirational films, The Blind Side, Precious, The Help, which feature black protagonists’ heroic or heroine path of self-salvation. With the white racial frame which has a negative orientation to the black but a positive orientation to the white, this paper aims to see whether the as United States has entered post-racial era as supposed through an analysis these films and whether Obama’s election will have an influence on the portrayals of African Americans in the films.
After an analysis of the three films, it is found though the black protagonists are portrayed as positive images, racial stereotypes, racist languages and racialized emotions can still be found in the depictions of African Americans. White superiority, virtues and moral goodness are emphasized in the portrayal of the white. Therefore, it is concluded that after Obama’s election, although the black protagonists analyzed in these three films are depicted as positive, racism still exists in these films, which indicates that racism still exists in the United States and post-racial is still yet to come in the United States.
论文题目(英文): The East in the Eyes of the West: Exploring Beyond the Rise of Asian American Fashion Designers since the 1980s
论文关键词(中文): 亚裔美国时装设计师, 东方主义, 自我, 东方化, 刻板印象
论文关键词(英文): Asian American, Fashion Designer, Orientalism, Self-orientalizing, Stereotype.
The beginning of thetwenty-first century has witnessed a wave of young Asian American fashion designers (such as Alexander Wang, Jason Wu, and Richard Chai) breaking into American fashion industry with enormous success. Named by the New York Magazine as “Asian American fashion movement”, the emergence of successful Asian American fashion designers can be traced back to Vera Wang and Anna Sui in the 1980s. The rise of Asian American fashion designers has attracted great attention from both American mass media and the public. Their remarkable success makes it easy for the public to neglect the industry’s continued problems with race. Firmly believing that racial problems in the fashion world are far from extinction, this thesis takes Edward Said’s critical theory of “orientalism” as its analytical tool to look into the behaviors of the fashion industry and Asian American fashion designers themselves.
After exploring into the current racial situation in American fashion industry through analyzing recent cases and following news reports and online articles,two findings havebeen reached. Firstly, American fashion industry as a whole is enrolled in “orientalizing” behaviors. Western fashion brands/designers are enthusiastic to infuse Asian cultural elements into their collections to trade for commercial benefits. Many of these “Asian-inspired” collections reinforce prolonged Asian American stereotypes by displaying certain cultural symbols, which imply an “inferior” Asia in contrast to the West. Secondly, Asian American fashion designers themselves, as members of the fashion industry, have unconsciously taken part in “negative construction” of Asian image and Asian cultures, which is a process of “self-orientalizing”. Their astonishing success in the fashion world directly serves as evidence of Asian “model minority” stereotype; some Asian American fashiondesigners have contributed in portraying Asian cultures as “rigid, non-democratic and highly-hierarchical” through blaming traditional Asian family values; Asian American fashiondesigners are also enrolled in random materialization of Asian cultures, without realizing the negative consequences caused by the incomplete and one-sided representation of Asian cultures
论文题目(英文): Social Capital Formation of Jewish Family Business in American Newspapering
论文关键词(中文): 美国报业, 犹太家族企业, 社会资本
论文关键词(英文): American Newspapering, Jewish Family, Business Social Capital
Jews are destined to be a special people—unremitting migration, inhumane genocide, dwindling population, bereft of a motherland, yet the oldest, the richest, and the most intellectual group. Jewish power in the fields of politics, finance, and academics are long known to all. By comparison, their dense concentration on the mass media is less telling.
To gauge Jewish media strength, newspapers, with its longest history, the highest authority, is selected. By comparing three circulation reports at different times, sixteen newspapers with the largest daily circulation are singled out. Behind the sixteen newspapers are twelve press barons, including seven Jews. More remarkably, four of them are Jewish families.
Family business, is like a double-edged sword. On one hand, it can co-exist and mutually reinforce the family; on the other hand, it may tear apart the family because of the entangled interests. Therefore how these Jewish families rid themselves of disintegration and prolong their business life span deserves a further inquiry. Furthermore, their Jewish identity draws attention in that family businesses of other ethnic groups all end up with failure, like the Christian Chandlers (The Los Angeles Times), and the Bancrofts (The Wall Street Journal). Does their Jewish identity also make any difference in their longtime business success If it does, how does it help in shaping their business longevity
This research adopts the theory of social capital to find why Jewish family business can live long. Regardless of divided views on defining social capital, two converging points do exist: social capital is comprised of norms and networks, which facilitate reciprocal cooperation (Woolcock 1998; Putnam 2000). Measured by this yardstick, the importance of culture from where norms are derived, in producing social capital is underlined. Or the creation of social capital is largely affected by cultural factors, therefore not all cultures possess the same social capital.
To specify the social capital behind Jewish families, first-hand prosopographies of these three Jewish families become the primary source of data. By observing their family life,
shared norms, including some peculiar to Jews, and helpful to the maintenance of their family business are highlighted. Meanwhile, their social interaction, as recorded in their (auto)biographies, are taken as a proxy to measure social embeddedness. Having clarified both the constituting norms and networks, several successful tips can be drawn.
First comes mutual family support, expressed in ways like emotional support, decision-making support, and cheap/low-cost labour. Once building family support, it can create a peaceful and integrated household, which gets reinforced through smooth communication, regular family activities, and powerful family leadership.
Then ranks the formation of a family consensus─the supremacy of their family business interests. Only by recognizing the priority of their family business, can family members be willing to cooperate to sustain it, otherwise personal interests entwined with family business may hobble its growth.
The next is the cultivation of a qualified and professional family business successor. Meritocracy can make sure family members be risen on genuine ability, while job-related training can furnish the torchbearers with necessary knowledge and practical skills of their family businesses, hence better adapted and minimizing the impact of power transfer.
Finally is the active social involvement of these Jewish families. By interacting frequently and intensively with the political circle, the Jewish families increase their accesses to valuable resources, especially newsworthy information that augments their newspaper businesses.
Apart from the internal efforts of these Jewish families, a favorable external environment serves as a contextual complement. America, with its religious tolerance of Judaism, and a democratic social climate where anti-Semitism has never become an officially sanctioned policy, facilitates Jewish success.
In a word, combining the efforts from its own side and the advantages from the external environment, Jews do achieve a long-lasting success
论文题目(英文): The Racial Formation of Arab and Muslim Americans in Post-9/11
论文关键词(中文): 种族身份认同, 美国阿拉伯人和穆斯林 9/11事件
论文关键词(英文): Racial Formation, Arab and Muslim Americans 9/11
9/11 恐怖袭击事件以后，由于与恐怖袭击分子的外形特征相似，美国阿拉伯人和穆斯林在美的生活发生了巨大的变化。而这一系列连锁事件引起的变化对美国阿拉伯人和穆斯林的种族身份认同造成了深远的影响。本文运用迈克尔·奥米和霍华德·怀南特（Michael Omi and Howard Winant）的种族身份认同构成理论（1994），探究9/11事件后期美国阿拉伯人和穆斯林身份认同的变化。具体而言，本文采用文本分析的方法分析美国阿拉伯人和穆斯林的自述故事、口述史、采访文本、政府文件、美国阿拉伯人和穆斯林的组织报告，来探究以下两大问题：9/11以后美国阿拉伯人和穆斯林在共同成为一种独立、显性种族的过程中有哪些主要的势力在推波助澜？这些势力又是如何转变了美国阿拉伯人和穆斯林的种族取向和群体身份？
Abstract: This thesis analyzes the process of how a racial group comes into being. Red as all blood is, diverse racial groups exist in different skin colors such as white, black, brown and etc. However, race is not a static born feature from society, but is constructed in specific social and historical environment. As members of social groups, man comes from different families and societies, and their racial identification changes within the development of specific social and historical environment.
In the aftermath of the 9/11 terrorist attack, the life of Arab and Muslim Americans was under dramatic change and transformation due to terrorist phenotype imposed upon them by the mainstream society, which generated tremendous impacts on their racial identification. Drawing on the theoretical framework of Racial Formation Theory, as proposed by Michael Omi and Howard Winant (1994), this thesis attempts to investigate this racial identity transformation of Arab and Muslim Americans in post-9/11 era. Specifically, this thesis employs the method of textual analysis of narratives, oral histories, interview transcripts, government records, and organizational reports and answers the following questions: What were the predominant external and internal forces at work that rendered Arab and Muslim Americans as a new racial category, especially in post-9/11? How have the external and internal forces transformed the meanings of Arab and Muslim Americans’ racial identification and group affiliation?
After a thorough analysis, the findings indicate that the Arab and Muslim Americans’ post-9/11 experience has affected their racial identity both from without and from within. To be more specific, the outside forces imposed upon them such as biased state policies, negative media representation, and unsympathetic individuals helped create a hostile environment for Arab and Muslim Americans. However, Arab and Muslim Americans did not passively accept the derogative identity, but self-initiated various kinds of responses and counter-responses to fight back racism and discrimination, which contributed to the creation and transformation of a more positive racial self-identity by themselves. The racial formation of Arab and Muslim Americans in post-9/11 context demonstrates that these two competing sets of racial forces did not work separately, but interacted and infused with one another both on macro structural level and micro individual level, jointly shaping the racial identity formation and self-formation of Arab and Muslim Americans.
论文题目(英文): Identity of Chinese Americans in Sui Sin Far’s Writings
论文关键词(中文): 文化身份, 种族, 性别, 阶级
论文关键词(英文): identity, race, gender, class
Sui Sin Far is a pioneer in Chinese American Literature. As a Eurasian, she is regarded as the first to write about Chinese American experience from an insider’s perspective. Mrs. Spring Fragrance, a short story collection which was published in 1912, is her representative work. Her writings cover various themes, including love, marriage and family life of Chinese Americans. Her description of Chinese, especially of Chinese women, overturns the mainstream stereotype of Chinese. Sui Sin Far makes her Chinese identity public in exclusionary era, and speaks for Chinese in her writings. By exposing of the oppressions that Chinese suffer from hegemony of race, gender and class, Sui Sin Far reconstructs the image of Chinese. The pioneer role of Sui Sin Far in Chinese American Literature is not recognized until 1970s. The study of Sui Sin Far in 1970s and 1980s mainly explores her contribution to Chinese American Literature and affirms her precursor status. Since 1990s, critical study of Sui Sin Far has been done from different perspectives. Chinese scholars focus on her cultural identity, while foreign scholars re-examine her writings from aspects of feminism and ethnography. This thesis, combining historical context and textual analysis, is to examine the identity of Chinese Americans in Sui Sin Far’s writings from the perspective of race, gender and class by using Stuart Hall’s theory of cultural identity. It is to see how Sui Sin Far exposes the oppressions of race, gender and class that Chinese receive. The aim is to deepen the understanding of Sui Sin Far and her writings, exploring her true value in Chinese American Literature. This thesis consists of five parts. Chapter one briefly introduces the biographical and historical context of Sui Sin Far, reviews the studies on Sui Sin Far at home and abroad, and then presents the focus and structure of this thesis. Chapter two examines Sui Sin Far’s writings from the perspective of race, showing the identity dilemma of hybrids and Chiense Americans’ different attitudes toward assimilation. Chapter three analyzes the altered “gender role” of Chinese man and woman in America. Chapter four concentrates on exploring the downward and upward mobility of Chiense Americans’ class status in Sui Sin Far’s writings. Chapter five presents the conclusion. Based on the analyses in previous chapters, it is concluded that even in the 19th century when anti-Chinese sentiment reached climax, the identity of race, gender and class for Chinese Americans is not static. Their identity is transformed with the changes in historical, social and cultural contexts. By exposing the oppressions Chinese Americans receive, Sui Sin Far offers counter-voices against the hegemony of race, gender and class.
论文题目(英文): “Who You Calling A Bitch?” Misogynistic Themes in Rap Lyrics: 2002-2012
论文关键词(中文): 说唱音乐, 厌女症, 21世纪流行文化
论文关键词(英文): rap music, misogyny, 21st century popular culture
作为美国流行文化的重要组成部分，说唱音乐（也被称作嘻哈音乐）深受广大美国年轻人的欢迎，每年的Billboard年度热门歌曲中很大一部分是说唱。作为非裔美国人文化的一部分，说唱音乐从诞生之日起便传载着多种信息。它可以作为政治武器批判政府、呼吁社会平等，也可以作为纯娱乐休闲工具供年轻人消费。说唱音乐给予了很多非裔美国人寻求成功的机会，但也给很多负面信息提供了文化平台。女性形象在文化现象中的体现一直是学术讨论的热点问题，说唱歌曲中的女性形象也得到了学术界的关注。然而，这些女性形象往往是负面的，女性经常被当成单纯的性对象，并且被叫带有侮辱性的称呼。说唱音乐也因此被普遍认为得了“厌女症”。由于说唱歌手中绝大部分是男性，而制作人几乎也都是男性，因此像大多数行业一样，说唱音乐界一直是男性主导的工业。这也对歌曲中的女性形象建立产生了很大影响。此篇论文的目的在于探究21世纪近十年说唱音乐歌词中的女性形象，进而确定“厌女症”在新世纪是否依然盛行及其原因。本文以社会建构理论对性别和种族的建构为理论框架，采用定量定性综合分析法，通过对2012-2012年Billboard Top Rap Songs歌词的分析，发现负面女性形象在歌词中的体现确实依然非常普遍，甚至在女性歌手演唱的歌曲中也是一样，进而讨论分析结果的原因。
As an important part of the American popular culture, Hip-Hop music, or rap music, is very popular among the American youth. A big portion of Billboard’s year-end charts goes to rap songs. From its very birth, rap has been used as a political and social force by African Americans to criticize the government and call for equality; it has also been used as purely entertainment such as dancing rap. Rap industry has offered great opportunities for young black people to be successful, but it also serves as a cultural platform for negative messages. The image of women in cultural phenomena has been a popular topic in scholarly research, and the image of black women in rap music also receives attention. However, the images are usually very negative. Black women are seen as sex objects and are called names. Therefore rap music is often viewed as a misogynistic industry. The male dominance is easily seen as male producers and rappers take up the majority of the industry, which has a big impact on how women are viewed in the songs. This thesis is to explore the images of women in rap songs in the latest 10 years of the 21st century, and to see if the misogynistic themes are still prevalent. Social construction theory about gender and race is the theoretical framework of this research. A combination of quantitative and qualitative assessment is used as the main methodology. Songs selected from “Billboard Top Rap Songs” are analyzed. The finding is that although misogynistic themes still exist in some songs, they are still very prevalent, even in female rappers’ works.
论文题目(英文): U.S. Coverage of the South China Sea Disputes in the New York Times and the Washington Post
论文关键词(中文): 南海, 中国, 东南亚, 美国
论文关键词(英文): the South China Sea, China, Southeast Asia, the U.S.
The South China Sea has been disputed between China and several Southeast Asian countries ever since 1970s and the disputes have gone unabated. However, in recent years, especially after 2009, a new round of disputes escalated, which became the main concern of not only China and its competing claimants in Southeast Asia but also the United States thousands of miles away.
Previous works on the South China Sea are limited to history, international laws, and international relations, etc. Few perceive from the angle of the media. Since media also have their role in American foreign policy, it is necessary to study available news articles to get general knowledge as to how the U.S. mainstream media frame the South China Sea issue, what means are utilized in the framing process and what role the media play in America’s foreign policy towards the South China Sea disputes.
Drawing on the framing theory, this study takes content analysis and discourse analysis to study news articles from both the New York Times and the Washington Post. The content analysis deals with all available news articles in the past three decades to get a general picture of the news trend. ?The discourse analysis, focusing on articles exactly about the South China Sea after 2009, approaches from the aspects of lexis, figures, rhetorical devices, transitivity, source attribution, and nonverbal means. The research results show that in the news frame by the U.S. media, China is depicted as an expansionist power that tries to bully its weak Southeast Asian neighbors. In contrast, the U.S. plays the role of the judge, who comes to their assistance and upholds justice for the common good.
Moreover, with more official information, it is found that the media and the government are actually of one mind on the South China Sea issue. The Obama administration seeks to return to the Asia-Pacific and the media make their contribution as the U.S. wields its soft power.
论文题目(英文): An Analysis of Madame Chiang Kai-shek’s Image in Time from 1936 to 1945
论文关键词(英文): Madame Chiang Kai-shek image disparity Time Magazine
An enigmatic figure during her three-century-spanning life, Madame Chiang Kai-shek projected a widely nuanced and multifaceted image of herself, which has made presenting her whole picture a difficult task. Her various activities, selfless or self-seeking, democratic or authoritarian, were too numerous to be pinpointed. Meanwhile, she was really talented in portraying herself in a positive light. She was the one who consciously yet effortlessly utilized her talents and strengths to publicize her and the Nationalist Government of China to the American audience. In addition, she rarely missed a chance to exhibit her charisma and grace to the outside world. The whirlwind tour of crossing-the-U.S., her conspicuous presence among the world leaders, and the various pamphlets and books she wrote to introduce China and its efforts and sacrifice, all contributed much to her image in the eyes of ordinary Americans. During that process, Time played a unique and pivotal role. Throughout Time’s coverage on Madame Chiang Kai-shek, an overwhelmingly positive image was established and presented, featured by the key elements that Americans hold dear to their hearts, such as being a faithful and helpful wife, the charisma she radiated as a female leader, her piety on religious faith, her grace and style, and her American education. According to many prominent figures who were close to or had dealt with her, however, her image itself in Time seemed a myth. Her imperiousness and extravagancy, the hard-boiled and expanding hunger for power earned her the fame as “Dragon Lady”. In addition, this paper presents a tentative effort to explore the reasons and factors for this striking gap between her image in Time and that among those close to her. Time’s equation of Madame Chiang’s image with the image of China was the first and foremost reason for her overwhelmingly positive image in Time. Her image was also closely tied to a favorable image of China which Time relentlessly pursued to materialize. The alliance between China and the United States during WWII, The Nationalist Government’s propaganda control, Madame Chiang’s own personal charisma and Henry Luce’s ideology and control of Time magazine also contributed to this exceptionally positive image of Madame Chiang.
论文题目(英文): An Analysis of Obama Administration’s Effort to Restore American Image in the Middle East–From Public Diplomacy Perspective
论文关键词(中文): 奥巴马美国形象, 公共外交
论文关键词(英文): Obama American Image, Public Diplomacy
A good national image can facilitate one country’s foreign policy. During the Bush Jr. presidency, the U.S. image suffered around the world. When came into office, Obama promised to restore the US image in the world, trying to cooperate with important partners and regions. He paid more attention to public diplomacy, took more careful steps in international issues and showed his friendly side to Muslim countries. The favorability of Obama was very high both at home and abroad. After middle election, the Democratic Party lost majority seats in Congress, which made it hard for Obama to keep his promises. Will Obama administration restore the US image under such situation? The first term of Obama is coming to an end, how does the Muslim world evaluate American people and Obama administration? This thesis will use public opinion polls done by professional organizations to explain whether the U.S. image has been restored. In the research, I find the expectations of Obama administration are very high in his first days as president, the overall favorability toward America uplifted a little in Middle East. The U.S. government had done many public policy programs in the Middle East to promote its culture, values. Most of these cultural and educational exchange programs went well and were popular. However, the long-term communications and certain limits of these programs cannot change the overall attitudes of the people in this area for U.S. What’s more, the American national interest also determines its foreign policy to the Middle East. The American public diplomacy does work in some area, but the favorability of America have not seen any better changes during the Obama administration. The American overall image in this area does not match its public diplomacy efforts.
论文题目(英文): The Representation of the American Genocide in Contemporary American Films
论文关键词(中文): 种族大屠杀, 美国种族大屠杀, 美国印第安人, 美国电影
论文关键词(英文): Genocide, American Genocide, American Indians, American Films
There are many ways to look at films which portray American Indians, I have chosen the lens of genocide for this research project. This thesis is an analysis of 4 contemporary American films dealing with (in full/in part) the history of American Indians from the time of the arrival of the first settlers up to the present day, with specific focus on the representation of the American Genocide in these films. The aim of this thesis is to find out how the American Genocide is covered up in the majority of American films, in order to critique and dismantle false representations and ideologies.
The research questions for this research project are:
Do American films cover up the American Genocide, and how do they cover up the American Genocide?
Do American films that attempt to expose chapters of the American Genocide go far enough in their exposure?
The theories of American Indian scholar Ward Churchill, specifically his 4 aspects of the denial, cover up and justification of the American Genocide are looked at in detail and are utilized as the framework for the analyses of the selected films. Ward Churchill’s 4 aspects of the denial, justification and cover up of the American Genocide are as follows: data manipulation; disease; direct killing; final phase.
This research project finds that American films do cover up the American Genocide, and they do so by either not mentioning genocide or by portraying certain massacres as isolated phenomenon. Films that do attempt to expose certain chapters of the American genocide do not go far enough in their exposure of the American Genocide as a whole. This means that by focusing on specific massacres for example, films can create an impression that these were isolated occurrences. If filmmakers know how the American genocide is covered up, they will be better equipped to expose it. This research project suggests: Use the methods of the cover up (as seen in Churchill’s 4 aspects) to expose the American genocide. American identity, of which American Indians is a significant part, needs to be re-examined. Indian filmmakers need to create an answering discourse and Indians need to take control of their own image.
论文题目(英文): US Africa Policy in the Post-Cold War Era: Changes and Continuity
论文题目(英文): The Impact of U.S. Exchange Diplomacy in the MENA Region: Perspectives of Algerian Participants