英文题目： Chinese-American House Representatives’ Attitudes towards China, 2009-2020
The US-China relationship is arguably one of the most significant bilateral relations round the world, and with the emergence of China in the global community it is indispensable to deal well with Congress, i.e., congressional diplomacy so as to build a new model of major-country relationship based on the principles of non-conflict and non-confrontation, mutual understanding and win-win cooperation. Congress impacts the China policy through legislation, while each legislation is conducted by congressional legislators. Since 2000s, six Chinese-American Congresspersons have been elected to the Capital Hill, yet academic researches are still inadequate and concentrate more on Chinese-American political participation in federal, state and county government but no Congress. Thus, this thesis is set to explore Chinese-American Representatives’ positions and attitudes towards China from 2009 to 2020.
This thesis adopts discourse analysis method both quantitatively and qualitatively to analyze how Chinese-Americans perceive China and what attitudes they hold towards six vital China issues: trade and economy, security, South China Sea, Taiwan, Hong Kong, Tibet and Xinjiang, based on statistics from three sources: sponsorship and co-sponsorship, congressional roll call votes, and social media posts and statements related to China. More precisely, this thesis (a) compiles China bills both sponsored and cosponsored by Chinese-American Congresspersons, marks out the attitude （as “positive”, “negative”, “neutral”）of each bill on a topic classification basis, and makes comparison with their fellow party members; (b) compares Chinese-American Congresspersons’ behavior of roll call votes on China bills with their party members; and (c) makes a discourse analysis on the Twitter and Facebook posts and floor speeches pertaining to China.
Based on the analysis of bills and posts concerning China, it has been found that Chinese-American Congresspersons (a) generally pour less attention to China, and focus more on domestic affairs; (b) basically hold negative position-taking towards the six China issues, which is in line with their party positions; (c) unanimously expect to maintain a good relationship between China and the United States, especially trade ties; (d) unanimously take neutral positions towards China on issue of Chinese culture, Chinese-American history, and COVID-19, which in a sense does good to China; (e) ideologically hold negative and critical views towards China’s political system, human rights issue and Chinese Communist Party; (f) spare different degree of attention towards China issues among which they concern more about Taiwan, presenting a pro-Taiwan gesture; and (g) appear differences among their separate attentions to China with Lieu and Wu being more negative towards China while Judy Chu, Grace Meng and TJ Cox attach less importance on China issues and are more neutral.
Moreover, under the theoretical structure of Rational Choice Institutionalism (RCI), this research seeks to provide an explanation of the potential factors behind Chinese-American Representatives’ position-takings and attitudes towards China from three perspectives: (a) Representatives’ preference, characterized by ideology, partisanship, seniority and immigrant experience; (b) institution, mainly focusing on the Representatives’ membership of congressional commissions and caucuses targeting China; and (c) constituency interests, featuring the districts’ trade ties with China.
This thesis is expected to shed some lights into the research of Chinese-American political participation in the United States by bridging the gap of Representative research, and practically this thesis appeals for invigorating congressional diplomacy by uniting Chinese-American Representatives, contributing to the building of a new model of major-country relationship between the US and China.
Key Words: Chinese-American Congresspersons, China attitudes, China bills, social media posts, Rational Choice Institutionalism
英文题目：U.S. Policy Towards the Iran Nuclear Deal: A Two-level Game Analysis
关键词：双层博弈 《伊朗核协议》 伊朗核问题
The Iran Nuclear Deal is part of Obama’s political legacy, indicating that he is actively committed to resolving the Iranian nuclear issue and to mending the U.S.-Iran relations. However, Trump declared after he came into office that he would renegotiate the agreement and even threatened to withdraw from it. In May 2018, Trump made the decision to withdraw. Trump’s policy on the agreement differs a lot from Obama’s and brought the U.S.-Iran relations to a very low point. This thesis will answer the following questions: How did international negotiations and domestic bargaining contribute to the U.S. commitment to the Iran Nuclear Deal under the Obama administration? Why did the U.S. take a different position towards Iran and the Iran Nuclear Deal? How did international negotiations and domestic bargaining prevent the U.S. from continuing commitment to the deal under the Trump administration?
This thesis adapts the two-level game theory to analyze the different policies of Obama and Trump on the Iran Nuclear Deal. It concludes that international negotiations and domestic political actors play different roles in these two policies.
Under the Obama administration, at the international level, the U.S. played an important role in the international negotiations. First of all, Obama emphasized the U.S. leadership on the non-proliferation issues, and pointed out that the deal was in the U.S. national security interests and could resolve the Iranian nuclear threat. He also reached consensus with other countries at the negotiating table to expand the overlapping area of win-sets. Secondly, at the domestic level, the agreement was strongly opposed by the Republic majority in Congress and the pro-Israel interest group AIPAC. Therefore Obama turned to seek the support of Democrats and made his compromise to Congress. Finally, Obama used the strategy of “issue redefinition” to increase the possibility of a successful deal.
Under the Trump administration, at the international level, the U.S. was the major force for its withdrawal from the Iran Nuclear Deal. Trump repeatedly demanded agreement renegotiation and the imposition of sanctions against Iran, which contradicted the preferences of other major negotiators. Seeing the bleak hope to renegotiate and opposing preferences of other negotiators in international negotiations, the U.S. threatened to withdraw from the agreement. At the domestic level, the Trump administration shared the preferences with Congress and the AIPAC, which unanimously supported the decision to withdraw from the agreement. Finally, given Trump’s intention was to drop out, he did not actively adopt any negotiating strategy, leading to the passive withdrawal from the agreement.
The contribution of this thesis is that by using the two-level game theory to analyze the different U.S. policies under Obama and Trump, it has sought to fill the gap in previous studies that pay little attention to the interconnection between the international and domestic levels. It has made useful addition to the two-level game theoretical research and the U.S. policy research on Iran as well as the Iran Nuclear Deal.
Key words: two-level game theory Iran Nuclear Deal Iranian nuclear issue
英文题目：An Analysis of President Trump’s Performance of Crisis on Immigration Issue during 2016 Presidential Campaign
本文借用本杰明·莫菲特（Benjamin Moffitt）的危机制造（performance of crisis）概念作为理论框架，从特朗普加剧美国民众在移民方面危机感的角度来深入分析特朗普在2016年大选中有关移民的演讲。为了对特朗普关于移民的态度有更深入的了解，本文首先利用特朗普在2016年大选期间关于移民问题的11篇演讲并筛选了140条特朗普关于移民的推特建立了语料库，并结合批评性话语分析法中费尔克劳（Fairclough）的三维分析模型和语料库语言学对语料库进行了分析。三维分析模型分为描述，阐释和解释。在描述阶段，通过编码发现了特朗普演讲中在移民问题上的话语策略以及所使用的修辞手段。阐释阶段研究特朗普语言所发挥的作用。解释阶段分析了特朗普演讲中的社会背景和美国民众对演讲的反应。并且为了让研究结果更加客观更有说服力，本研究用语料库语言学的方法对语料库数据再次做了分析。
经过分析得出：唐纳德·特朗普的演讲和推特企图操纵民众的情感，其中包括激起人们对希拉里·克林顿（Hillary Clinton）和奥巴马（Barack Obama）为代表的政客的愤怒和对移民的恐惧，并提高自己的可信性。为了实现这一目的，他使用了重复，夸大，排比，比喻这些极具个人特色的修辞技巧。他有效制造了关于美国移民问题的心理危机感，企图使人们在他制造的焦虑和恐惧中选择相信他，从而为自己赢得大选获胜的筹码。那他是如何制造移民危机以获取巨大政治利益的呢？首先他成功地找到了民主党很大程度上忽略的竞选问题，即移民问题。然后，他将希拉里和奥巴马为代表的政治家，“可怕的”非法移民与“诚实勤劳”的美国人民对立起来。他向选民保证，要把美国还给美国人，保证他对这一问题有简单有效的解决方案。他利用了人们寻求本体安全感的需求，制造了移民危机感，让人们选择他“强有力的领导”。
In the 2016 American presidential election, Donald Trump’s election is an important manifestation of the growing power of populist politics in the US. Many scholars argue that it is his stance on the then-current immigration policy in the United States that wins him the leverage in the election. Given the importance of the immigration issue to Trump’s election, a more detailed study on Trump’s stance on migration issue during the 2016 campaign is very necessary.
Borrowing the theoretical concept—performance of crisis, this paper attempts to analyze Trump’s rhetoric on immigration in the 2016 election from the perspective of Trump’s elevation of peoples’ sense of immigration crisis. To generate a deeper understanding of Trump’s election stance on immigration, this paper builds a corpus using his 11 immigration speeches and 140 immigration tweets during the 2016 campaign about the immigration issue. This paper analyzes the corpus using the method of Fairclough’s three-dimension analysis and corpus linguistics. Three-dimension analysis is an analytical method from critical discourse analysis, which comprises three stages—description, interpretation, and explanation. In the description stage, through coding, this thesis discovers the discourse strategy and rhetoric devices used in Trump’s speech on immigration issues. The interpretation stage studies the role played by Trump’s language. The explanation stage analyzes the social background of Trump’s speech and the American public’s response to the speech. And to make the research results more objective and convincing, this research uses the method of corpus linguistics to analyze the same data.
It is concluded that Donald Trump’s speeches manipulated people’s emotions including appealing to anger at politicians represented by Hillary Clinton and Barack Obama, appealing to fear of immigrants, and showing his credibility. He used repetition, exaggeration, parallelism, contrast, and metaphors to achieve the goal. The speech effectively manufactured a psychological crisis on the US immigration issue. So how did he create an immigration crisis to obtain huge political benefits? It is found that he successfully located the campaign issue that has largely been the Democrats’ oversight—the immigration issue. Then he pitted politicians represented by Hillary Clinton and the “terrible” immigrants against the American people and assured his voters that he has a simple and effective solution to this problem. He took advantage of the public’s search for ontological security to convince the voters to believe his rhetoric and support his “strong leadership”.
This paper uses the theoretical concept of performance of crisis to analyze Trump’s stance on immigration issues during the 2016 campaign, challenging the argument that Trump won the election because he responded to the economic, security and cultural problems that American people urgently needed to solve, which were caused by the then-current immigration policy. This thesis reminds us that the audience of political speeches should maintain independent thinking and self-awareness.
Keywords: Donald Trump, 2016 election, immigration, three-dimension -analysis model, the performance of crisis
英文题目：The Impact of Donald Trump’s Personality Traits on His Foreign Policies and Prestige Strategies
Since Donald Trump took office, he has been widely labeled as a capricious President with unpredictable foreign policy behavior. However, one thing has been constant throughout his life: his great attention to the intangible and symbolic aspect of U.S. international relations. To illustrate, since his first public comments on U.S. foreign policy in 1980, Trump has made it clear that he perceives disrespect for America as the country’s key foreign policy problem and respect as the most important thing in international relations. The same has been true of his later public statements since he won the 2016 presidential election, proclaiming on various occasions to restore respect for America. Nevertheless, existing explanations for the Trump administration’s foreign policies and strategies out of status and prestige concern remain deficient. Moreover, the important theoretical perspective of the agent specific factor, the leader’s personality traits in studying the dominant power’s prestige concern, has also been neglected in existing literature.
Therefore, this current research fills the research gap by investigating the role of Trump’s personality traits in his foreign policies aimed at restoring American international status and prestige, by utilizing Margaret G. Hermann’s theoretical framework of leadership trait analysis and her suggested methods of at-a-distance automated content analysis (of about 50 Trump’s interviews across his term) and multiple case studies (the two types of Trump’s perceived prestige challengers). And the research questions include: What are Trump’s politically-relevant personality traits according to the automated content analysis? How do such personality traits influence American foreign policies and Trump’s strategies to restore status and prestige to America?
After the analysis, the present author argues Trump’s personality traits have a great impact on the purpose and strategies of American foreign policies. To be more specific, first, Trump is found to be distinctive in five traits compared to the standard reference group of 284 world leaders: high in his belief in the ability to control events (BACE), need for power and influence (PWR), self-confidence (SC) and distrust of others (DIS), while low on the task orientation measure (TASK).
Second, both the goal of many of Trump’s foreign policies and prestige strategies are largely influenced by Trump’s trait-led orientations and preferences. As for the former, many of the Trump administration’s foreign policies (such as the termination of Iran nuclear deal and trade policies) are largely driven by status and prestige concern, which is significantly influenced by Trump’s trait-led (high PWR, low TASK and high DIS) personal obsession with social respect, status and prestige. And as for the latter, this study finds that in dealing with the two types of perceived prestige challengers like the recalcitrant Iran and those free-riding states, due to high SC, Trump prefers to utilize verbal strategies of self-victimization and other-blaming to avoid shame and prestige loss and to justify his ensuing retaliatory actions towards those prestige challengers; owing to high SC and high PWR, he prefers such verbal tactics of self-praise and public demonstration of victory; and with high BACE, high PWR and high DIS, Trump is inclined to adopting unilateral approaches in a behavior sense to restore respect and prestige for America.
Last but not least, in addition to the above-mentioned academic value (filling the research gap and providing a fresh perspective for understanding American foreign policies in the Trump era), this research also makes a practical contribution by reemphasizing the significance of individual level (actor specific) factors in American foreign policy analysis, which is rather important but seems to have been marginalized since structural realism began to dominate IR studies during the later stages of the Cold War. Therefore, it is fairly indispensable to urge a renewed emphasis on the individual-level theoretical analysis while not blindly excluding other theoretical explanations.
Key words: Trump’s status and prestige-driven foreign policies; prestige strategies; Leadership Trait Analysis; prestige challengers.
英文题目：Signature Subjectivity: A Study of New Yorker Senior Journalist Peter Hessler
彼得·海斯勒（Peter Hessler）是《纽约客》最受欢迎的记者之一，也是麦克阿瑟“天才奖”得主。本研究在对海斯勒的最新著作《埃及的革命考古学》（The Buried: An Archaeology of the Egyptian Revolution）进行文本分析的基础上，探讨了海斯勒的新闻风格中的主体性色彩。此书是基于海斯勒在埃及进行了五年的报道写成。本研究介绍了《纽约客》标志性的文学性新闻风格，并借用其中的一些概念来探讨海斯勒新闻写作中的主体性。研究发现，海斯勒的新闻报道的主体性主要体现在他的文学性描写、浸入式报道和跨文化意识。海斯勒的新闻写作带有强烈的文学色彩。他沉浸在采访对象的生活中，与他们朝夕相处，交流思想，并真切地关心他们。他的跨文化视角使他能够了解异国文化中的埃及人，并启发了《埃及革命考古学》一书的人物塑造。 本研究还发现，彼得·海斯勒的新闻写作中强烈的主体性色彩使他成为了《纽约客》文学记者的典范。记者的主体性是《纽约客》优秀新闻报道的关键，而海斯勒的主体性体现了优秀新闻报道的原则。他选择埃及作为报道地，选择文学性新闻的形式进行埃及报道，体现了优秀新闻的第一条原则——努力提升自己。沉浸式的报道和文学性的叙述，是第二条原则——精进技艺的体现。他尊重并努力理解异国文化时展现的跨文化意识，展示了优秀新闻的第三条原则——革新故事框架。
Peter Hessler is one of the most popular journalists of The New Yorker and MacArthur ‘Genius’ Grant winner. This study explores Hessler’s subjectivity of his literary journalism based on a textual analysis of his most recent book The Buried: An Archaeology of the Egyptian Revolution—a collection of his five-year Egyptian coverage. It introduces the tenets of The New Yorker’s literary journalism and borrows some of the concepts to examine Hessler’s subjectivity. The research finds Peter Hessler’s literary journalism characterizes the subjectivity of literary sketches, immersion reporting, and an intercultural lens. He writes his journalistic pieces with a literary touch. He immerses physically, intellectually, and emotionally in his subjects’ life by spending time with them, exchanging ideas, and genuinely caring about them. His intercultural perspective enables him to understand Egyptian people and inspires the characterization of his Egyptian reportage. This research also finds Peter Hessler’s subjectivity makes him an exemplary literary journalist at The New Yorker. Journalists’ subjectivity is key to New Yorker’s excellent journalism and Hessler’s subjectivity exemplifies the principles of excellent journalism. His selection of Egypt as the place to cover and literary journalism as the format to carry out the Egyptian report demonstrates his efforts to improve himself. Immersion reporting and literary narration manifest his endeavors to elevate the craft of communication and writing. His subjectivity of an intercultural sensibility shows his efforts to refresh story frames.
Keywords: Peter Hessler, The New Yorker, literary journalism, subjectivity, intercultural sensibility, American journalism
英文题目：An Exploration of Female Protagonists’ Subjectivity in Sofia Coppola’s The Virgin Suicides, Lost in Translation and Marie Antoinette
美国社会中，如何公平客观地看待女性一直是深受人们关注的问题。作为文化表达的重要渠道，由男性导演主导的好莱坞影片中一直存在着一种色情化的男性凝视，在这种凝视下女性被过分展示身体，塑造成没有主动欲望的被看对象。这样的刻画引导了一种物化女性的观念，忽视了女性的主体性，不利于提高女性的社会地位。作为女性导演，索菲亚·科波拉在她的电影中表现出了对女性内心世界和主体性的关注，其中《处女之死》《迷失东京》和《绝代艳后》，以女性为主角，聚焦了三个不同类型的女性追逐理想生活的故事，引发了女性观众对于女主角的同情与认同。可以说，这三部电影让我们看到了一种不同于男性凝视的视角，这种视角是女性化的，展现女性故事，凸显女性的主体性。因此，本文选择“女性凝视”作为研究视角。鉴于劳拉·穆尔维 “好奇心驱使的欲望”学者丽莎·弗伦奇和导演吉尔·索洛韦对于“女性凝视”的定义, 建构出“女性凝视”的三大核心要素来深入分析女性的主体性。首先，女性凝视通过情绪、声音、视角等展现女性的欲望，身体拍摄是为了抒发情感；其次，观众能够体会到女性角色作为客体被凝视时的感觉；最后，女性能作为主体回视，在凝视中彰显自己的主体性，当她们凝视别人时这种凝视并非是反向控制性的。
In American society, how to view women objectively and equally is always a problem that arouses people’s attention. As a significant outlet for culture, Hollywood films dominated by male directors feature a sexualized “male gaze” for a long time, under which female bodies are over-displayed and female is portrayed as “to-be-looked-at-ness”. Spreading a notion of objectifying women and ignoring female subjectivity, such a depiction does harm to improving women’s social status. As a woman director, Sofia Coppola shows her attention to the female inner world and subjectivity in her directed films. Among her six films, The Virgin Suicides, Lost in Translation and Marie Antoinette that are featured with female protagonists present three different women’s pursuit of independent life, and trigger the female audience’s sympathy and identification. In that sense, the three films give us a glimpse of an alternative perspective that differs from the male gaze. The perspective is female, showing female stuff and highlighting female subjectivity. Accordingly, the thesis takes the perspective of the “female gaze”. Getting inspiration from Laura Mulvey’s “desire driven by curiosity”, and referring to Lisa French’s and Jill Soloway’s definition of “female gaze”, the thesis frames “female gaze” from three dimensions to explore women’s subjectivity in detail. Firstly, the female gaze is to express women’s desire by presenting emotions, voices, and perspectives. Body portrayal is to convey emotions. Secondly, the audience could feel what women as objects of gazers feel. Last but not the least, women can return gaze as subject, showing subjectivity. To be specific, their returning gaze is not a power reversal.
Based on analysis of Sofia Coppola’s first three films from the above three dimensions, the author explores female protagonists’ subjectivity on family, social and institutional levels. Focusing on women’s experiences and emotions from the perspective of the “female gaze” exposes women’s desire and independence as subjects, which offers us a way of understanding women and viewing women objectively and respectively. Lux in The Virgin Suicides hopes to get rid of Catholic parents’ control by showing desire for male attention and nature, but boys’ objectifying look and mother’s surveillance make her disappointed and sorrowful. As a subject, she finally declares her subjectivity by having free sex and committing suicide. Charlotte in Lost in Translation desires a balance between marriage and career, but she is confused and upset due to her husband's continual critique and failure to have a successful career. She finally starts a crazy and free journey of self-exploration and returns with hope as well as courage. Marie in Marie Antoinette aims to live an individual life differing from alienated women. Meanwhile, she suffers from constraints of political institutions and strict rituals. In the end, she successfully challenges institutions at that time by building a paradise of womanhood where she is free and pursues true love.
Key Words: Subjectivity, Female Gaze, Sofia Coppola
英文题目：From “Spectator” to “Participant”: Tao Xingzhi’s Labor Science Union Experiment Influenced by John Dewey’s Philosophical, Educational and Ethical Ideas
关键词：陶行知；工学团； 杜威；实用主义哲学； 参与者
Tao Xingzhi (1891-1946) was an outstanding Chinese educator in Republican China period. Studied in America in 1914-1917, Tao became a student of John Dewey (1859-1952), a pragmatic philosopher and educator in Teacher’s College, Columbia University, and was profoundly influenced by the latter. After he returned from America, Tao Xingzhi, in his 30-year educational career (1917-1946), participated in and initiated a series of educational movements, developed a systematic “Life Education” Theory, and Labor Science Union (LSU) idea and movement is a branch of it. Each period of Tao Xingzhi’s educational career has been studied academically, but the LSU period was studied the least. The theoretical connections between LSU idea and Deweyan theory have never been fully investigated, and Tao Xingzhi’s effort to transform Chinese people from “spectators” to “participants” through LSU education remains a total research gap.
This study aims to investigate how Tao Xingzhi, influenced by John Dewey's philosophical, educational, and ethical ideas, cultivated responsible “participants” through the Labor Science Union experiment. Its academic significances are of four layers: first, based on close reading of John Dewey and Tao Xingzhi's primary texts, the theoretical connections between the two are more deeply excavated; second, since the historical, philosophical, educational, and ethical elements are integrated, the perspectives of this study are more comprehensive than existing research; third, the LSU period of Tao Xingzhi has long been neglected, and this study shows how academically valuable this period is; fourth, it proves that Tao Xingzhi’s educational effort to transform Chinese people from “spectators” to “participants” in LSU period is worth investigating, not only for academic purpose but also for practical purpose. The last point is closely related to the practical significance of this study: Is modern Chinese education cultivating “spectators” or “participants”? Some students, after graduation, are neither able to make decisions for themselves nor contribute to society properly. Does that mean our schools still have a long way to go before they can cultivate “participants” who could be both responsible for themselves and society?
Tao Xingzhi, as a “participant” and an educator, applied the theories of John Dewey and designed a suitable educational plan to cultivate “participants”. This is worth learning from by modern educators.
Key Words: Tao Xingzhi, Labor Science Union, Dewey, pragmatic philosophy, participant
英文题目：Jonathan D. Spence’s Historical Narrative: A Study of God’s Chinese Son
Jonathan D. Spence is one of the most eminent sinologists in the USA. A prolific historian and writer at Yale, Spence writes more than a dozen books about Chinese history that reach a wide range of readers from scholars and students to the general public. His focus is mainly on the Ch’ing Dynasty. The themes of Spence’s works range from important figures, obscure people, significant events, cross-cultural encounters to general depictions of Chinese society and politics. His works reach a large audience both in China and overseas with The Chan’s Great Continent being the official textbook on modern China for many American undergraduate courses. It is necessary, therefore, to examine the historical narrative of a historian of such significance but the current literature on the topic is scarce. This paper attempts to fill the gap by examining Spence’s historical narrative through a close reading of God’s Chinese Son. Specifically, this research aims to answer to two questions: first, what are the features of Spence’s historical narrative as is demonstrated in God’s Chinese Son? and second, what is his historical philosophy demonstrated through his narrative?
Employing Hayden White’s theory on historiography, this research maintains that Spence’s historical narrative falls into three modes. He uses a Contextualist mode and a Satirical mode to narrate historical events and a Realist mode to portray historical figures. Together, these three modes point to his historical philosophy as Compassionism, a term this paper terms. This paper further discusses the origin of Spence’s philosophical vision by comparing it with the spirits of Greek tragedy and concludes that Spence’s historical vision shares the main philosophical elements of Greek tragedy.
This thesis mainly consists of two parts. In the first part, it attempts to outline Spence’s narrative features by using White’s historiographical modes. Through a close reading of the text of God’s Chinese Son with focus on Spence’s narrative strategies including his choice of words, his arrangements of the events, the comparative length of words he devotes to different parts as well as the interrelationships he establishes, this thesis argues that Spence tends to turn to a three-layered Contextualist cause-effect relationship to explain why certain historical events happened. In an attempt to answer how events happened exactly as they did, Spence also uses a Satirical mode to reveal the karmatic links among historical agents and their actions and explore how the fortuitous connection among actions could lead to unexpected outcomes. In addition, this thesis argues that Spence’s narrative on historical figures cannot be grouped under any of White’s theoretical framework. As a result, this paper terms his narrative on people as Realist. In the second part, based on the three features of Spence’s narrative, this thesis attempts to explores Spence’s historical vision. It argues that Spence’s historical philosophy as is demonstrated through the three modes is Compassionism and it shares with spirits of Greek tragedy.
Key words: Jonathan Spence, Historical Narrative, God’s Chinese Son
 李萌 2017级
英文题目：Define & Reconstruct: Representation of Women’s Role, Identity, Self-Awareness & Independence, A Discursive Analysis of U.S. Vogue Magazine, 2015-2018
本文以话语分析作为理论框架，分析和讨论了女性身份与自我意识和独立的关系，并特别关注了以下问题：1. 在美国《时尚》杂志话语下，女性作者的故事与讲述反映了什么样的女性形象？2.当今女性的角色和身份与以往相比，在什么方面以及在何种程度上有所不同？ 3. 在《时尚》杂志倡导的 “独立，勇敢，坚强”的女性标签身后，表现了什么样的女性概念？反映了何种性别关系？
This thesis examines female authors’ articles in the U.S. Vogue magazine as base and texts to explore women’s definition and reconstruction of their role, identity, self-awareness and independence in the 21st-century United States. This thesis uses discourse analysis as the theoretical framework to analyze and discuss the relationship between women’s identity and their self-recognition and independence, with special attention to the following questions: 1. In the context of Vogue U.S. magazine, what image of women—their roles, identity, self-awareness, and independence are represented under the narratives and stories written by female authors? 2. In what way and to what extent has American women’s roles and identities evolved from previous times? 3. What conceptualizations of womanhood and its implications for gender relations stand behind the Vogue magazine’s advocacy for labels like “independent, brave, strong”?
This paper finds that even in today’s America, Vogue’s illustration of women reflects that women are still constrained and affected by social construction—which, to some extent, prevents women’s self-exploring and self-realization. Women in love relationships or family are more easily constrained by social standards and bear more moral pressure, thus women under such circumstances tend to be more vulnerable and dependent, which has not changed a lot from previous times. Women with a stable core, compared to women mentioned above, are more flexible and show clearer self-awareness and independence on their thoughts and personal choices in a new age. Although self-awareness and independence of women appear according to Vogue’s depiction, there is still a long way for women to fully free themselves.
Keywords: women’s role, identity, self-awareness, independence, definition
英文题目：“Men for Women”: A Critical Discourse Analysis on How American Vogue Constructs Men’s Identity
The portrayal of gender has been a major topic of discussion in recent decades. Women’s movement would come to blows by the early 1970s along with Playboy, an American men's lifestyle and entertainment magazine known for its nude and semi-nude female models and sexual materials. Some researchers (e.g., Zillmann & Bryant) and a majority of feminists (e.g., Brownmiller) decried Playboy's "playmates" and bunnies, the female presentations, as objectifying and degrading. With the change of time, women’s fashion magazines have gained great attention of the public, where men are also presented and criticized as objectifying. Therefore, this thesis will examine how American Vogue, a popular women’s fashion magazine, portrays men for its women readers and how it may mislead the audience.
In order to explore the construction of men’s identity in American Vogue and how, a content analysis of all 120 issues of American Vogue from the year 2010 to 2019 will be conducted first, and this paper intends to fill the research gap by further providing a critical discourse analysis on 12 sample texts of 16 males, which will detect ideology and the power exertion through linguistic analysis.
Through the examination of the American Vogue in the recent decade, this thesis finds that, unlike “New Lad” who is only concerned with sports, drinking and shagging women, the man image presented by American Vogue is a disciplined, confident man with a successful career, who shows great concerns on social and cultural issues yet less concerns about family or sexual relationships. Though the presented male images are more diversified in terms of their sexuality and skin tone, some of the male stereotypes keep being reproduced, and so do traditional sexual relation and identities. Besides, text producers from American Vogue use “balancing” as a strategy for winning more readers at the same time maintaining its the power and authority in fashion and culture.
Key words: men’s identity; American Vogue; critical discourse analysis
英文题目：Outsourcing the Womb: U.S Media Framings and Public Discourses on Transnational Surrogacy
基于Erving Goffman 的框架理论，作者分别从挑选标准，因果解释，道德评判三个维度分析了美国代孕妈妈和印度代孕妈妈相关新闻报道的不同框架话语的建构。作者进一步得出结论，由于美国媒体对代孕妈妈的挑选标准，因果解释，道德评判的不同呈现才得以建构了不同的话语理论框架。即尽管为家庭建设贡献力量是一个共同的特征，但当涉及不同的国家背景时，其内涵却有所不同。对于美国代孕妈妈而言，美国媒体采用了利他主义框架，因为她们帮助了不孕不育夫妇实现了为人父母的愿望。但与此同时，只有当她们的代孕动机是出于想要帮助他人而非受金钱的诱惑时才被社会所认可。而对于印度的代孕母亲，美国媒体采用的是性别赋权框架，即处于贫困生活状态的印度妈妈们通过提供代孕服务改善了自己家庭的生活，为自家的发展建设贡献了力量。
关键词：商业代孕 跨国生育 代孕妈妈
Due to various reasons, people have started stepping outside of their own national bounds in pursuit of assisted reproductive technology globally. The U.S and India are the two most popular destination for providing the surrogacy service. In this study the researcher analyzes how surrogacy practice in the U.S and India are framed on American news media respectively. The author applied purposive sampling to collect news pieces, which were retrieved from U.S Newsstream database. The time frame was set between 2006-2020, among the 663 pieces of article that is relevant to research question, 48 articles were coded carefully as they were core to the research being studied. The author has found that there are two opposing framings America media has constructed for surrogacy in India: exploitation and opportunities.
Based upon the framing theory put forth by Erving Goffman, the author analyzed the construction of different framings and discourses in news reports related to surrogate mothers in the United States and India from three dimensions: selection criteria, causal interpretation as well as moral evaluation. The author further concluded that due to the American media's different selection criteria for surrogate mothers, causal interpretation, and different presentations of moral evaluation, different framings and discourses are thus constructed. That is although family-building is a shared characteristic but its connotation differs when it comes to different national background. For American surrogates, the altruism frame was applied for they have helped infertile couple fulfill their parenthood dream. Yet it is only acceptable if they do it out of love and not for money. For India surrogates, the gendered empowerment framing was constructed for women in dire poverty to better the life of their own family through the means of surrogacy.
The author then closely examines the different rules of decency and found that it is biased to some extent. For American surrogates, the motivation is not so purely altruistic; and for Indian surrogates, instead of gendered empowerment, working as surrogates actually brings about stigma and helps reinforcing the gender hierarchy and gender stereotyping. Such biased portrayal of surrogates located differently reveals the colonial lens American media has utilized in an attempt to perpetuate and preserve the existing social relations and power structures in the field of transnational reproduction.
Keywords: commercial surrogacy, global reproduction, surrogate motherhood
英文题目：Great Power Competition: A Critical Discourse Analysis of Fox News Reports on the U.S.-China IP Dispute during the Trade War
President Trump’s initiation of Section 301 investigation into China’s intellectual property and technology transfer policies, together with his imposition of punitive tariffs on Chinese goods convinces scholars and politicians that the U.S.-China confrontation has escalated on all fronts in the Trump era. While past research on power competition has paid close attention to the hard dimension of power, the contribution of soft power to great power competition is also worth noticing under the new circumstance.
With media being a source of soft power, the mainstream media that prompt the government’s position undoubtedly become a site of ideological power competition. In this regard, media discourse analysis enables this paper to discern the U.S.-China power competition from two dimensions. Firstly, it allows this paper to examine whether the ideological confrontation has been upgraded under the new circumstance. Secondly, it helps disclose the formation of the new type of major power relationship by analyzing the strategies of ideological meaning construction.
It is against this background that this paper intends to address the following questions: 1) What discursive strategies does Fox News apply to construct public opinion toward the IP dispute? 2) How does Fox News construct new ideologies amid the power competition between the existing hegemon (the U.S.) and the rising power (China)?
To answer the first question, this paper has adopted Van Dijk’s sociocognitive approach to CDA since public opinion is closely related to social cognition. To answer the second question, this paper has applied Norman Fairclough’s interdiscursivity to disclose changes and continuities of discursive strategies and discourse types. Among the 58 news articles sifted out from the official Fox News website, this paper only analyzes 20 of them line by line. The rest of 38 articles serve as a point of reference, which helps examine whether the addition of research subjects adds anything new to the analysis.
The analysis of macro (headlines) and local (news body part) propositions indicates that Fox News has constructed a contextual spectacle to the U.S.-China IP dispute. More specifically, it has constructed an all-round multi-level China threat by using lexical choice, pronouns, authorization, the number game, metaphors, rhetorical repetition, positive self-presentation and negative other-presentation, disclaimers, and the response to opposing views. Among the above discursive strategies, it is noteworthy that the response to opposing views is much frequently used in argumentative writing than in conventional news articles.
When it comes to changes and continuities of discourse types, Fox News has frequently referred to the discourse pertained to the Cold War, nationalism, Orientalism, the liberty and freedom, the mixture of news and entertainment, and great power competition in Western history. What is noteworthy is that Fox News has excluded the discourse of racism in its accusation of tech theft against China and has projected China as a threat to each and every American citizen. The projection of the China threat at the micro-level is the emergence of new discourse type in that U.S. media has never portrayed an enemy state as a threat to American citizens even during the 1980s when the U.S. had initiated the trade war with Japan for much of the same reason that it initiated the recent one with China.
More importantly, the analysis of the contextual spectacle shows that Fox News has placed the IP dispute in the context of great power competition. By establishing causal relationships between the China Dream and China’s tech theft and between the consequences of China’s tech theft and the tariff war, it presents China as an ascending power that strives to replace the U.S. dominance and justifies the tariff war as a preventive war that aims to prolong U.S. dominance in the international system.
Key words: power competition; the U.S.-China IP dispute; Fox News; sociocognitive approach to CDA; interdiscursivity
英文题目：Exploring New Post-Feminism and Gynocentric Perspective：The Representation of Women Who Kill in Killing Eve
From Medea to Judith, from femme fatale in film noir to professional agents in action flicks, the narratives of women who kill never fade or become obsolete. Even today, the audience still highly welcome the motif of murderous women in television and filmic productions, giving considerable attention and credits to the recent television series Killing Eve ((BBC America, 2018,2019&2020-). As a work produced in and after the #Metoo movement, Killing Eve has displayed a ground-breaking feminist representation of female killing onscreen, distinguished from previous sexualizing and objectifying ways to represent women who kill. The thesis aims at studying the visual representation of female killing in this television production under the theoretical framework of post-feminism. It borrows the notion of Rosalind Gill’s postfeminist sentiment and introduces a gynocentric perspective to counterbalance the long-standing male gaze as defined by Laura Mulvey.
The thesis will first conduct a textual analysis of women killers, in terms of their appearance, personality, behavior, and interpersonal relations, as a prelude to better understand their violence and killing. The portrayal of women who kill in the show is positive and detailed, building many nuanced and likable female characters who are more than a killer, but a career woman, a mother, a wife, a lover, and so on. They act in a postfeminist way—by exerting their agency and subjectivity. They also know well how to exercise their sexual power to achieve their goals, which manifests the subjective sexualization in Gill’s rendition of post-feminism.
Through an analysis of the motives, methods, and consequences of female killing, the bulk of the thesis displays homicides that hold self-interested motivations, personalized killing methods, yet no legal punishments and patriarchal constraints. With a gynocentric perspective, the television production represents female killing with more individuality, more freedom, and more empowerment. In fact, the breakthroughs of the production lie in its construction of a gynocentric perspective from producers to narratives, from characters to camera. Although it has some typical failings of post-feminism that over celebrates the victory of women’s power and achievement, its progressive aspects outweigh its regressive ones in that it provides a new angle for the spectators and filmmakers to deconstruct the traditional male gaze and patriarchal narratives by incorporating special female voice and a new gender ideology. Hopefully, the study of this ground-breaking television production can provoke further discussion of feminism, femininity, and power relations in female killing and shed some light on future exploration of cinematic and television productions with gynocentric perspectives or even nonsexual angles.
Keywords: Killing Eve, female killing, subjectivity, post-feminism, gynocentric perspective, representation
英文题目：Through the Labyrinth in Corporate America: A Four-level Analysis of the Professional Trajectory of Women Business Leaders
The under-representation of women in top leadership has long beset the press and academia, and a key issue is women leadership in corporate America. Despite that women have increasingly outperformed men in educational attainment, as measured by percentage of recipients of advanced degrees, they are still disproportionately underrepresented in American business leadership overall. This phenomenon of gender inequality has prompted the study of those women who break barriers in career path and rise to prominence in business, which is aimed to shed lights on public policies on gender equality and value realization of human capital.
The study focuses on a cohort of American business leaders (hereinafter referred to as AWBLs or WBLs) from Fortune’s “The Most Powerful Women in Business” (MPW) list (2015-2019) and draws data from their accounts in personal interviews, public speeches, and news releases. Using Ragins-Sundstrom’s theoretical approach of four-level analysis, which expounds on gender differences in power on the societal, organizational, interpersonal, and individual levels, the study adopts grounded theory and content analysis to examine how these AWBLs navigated the labyrinth to corporate leadership. Specifically, the study investigates the barriers these women faced and strategies they employed to overcome obstacles by tracing their career paths. Meanwhile, it explores how they vary in rising to prominence concerning class, race, and industries. Besides, the study links their lived experiences with institutional and cultural contexts of the United States.
The study finds that four factors in helping AWBLs successfully navigate the labyrinth of corporate leadership. First, on the societal level, educational attainment instilled professional knowledge into them while training their mindset to emphasize their abilities instead of gender differences. Second, the organization shifted its focus of the evaluation system from the entry to the senior management level, so the AWBLs accommodate those changes to rise through the ranks. Third, interactions with superiors and subordinates were crucial to break the old boys’ network and garner support. Last, their unique female leadership styles are effective to address barriers related to individual factors. Meanwhile, the study also finds three major changes. As women from disadvantaged backgrounds became business leaders, class or socioeconomic status is no longer a dominant factor in affecting women’s career advancement. Minority women executives suffered from the “double minority biases”. Also, education, experience, and expertise are important if women strive for a career in the technology world. Furthermore, institutional and cultural factors are closely related to their prominence in business. The organization’s diversity programs and Historically Black Colleges and Universities (HBCUs) provided opportunities to women and minorities for career development. The new economy in the 1990s also prompted some women to enter the technology world.
Based on the findings of how the WBLs navigated through the labyrinth to corporate leadership, the thesis concludes that their career advancement is a result of personal initiative and social contexts, i.e., they developed strategies to break career barriers while taking full advantage of favorable social conditions on their road to C-suite. Meanwhile, women still have a long road before achieving gender equality in leadership and the corporate leadership is stratified as minority women fare worst, compared with white women and men.
Key Words: American Women Business Leaders, the Four-level Analysis, Strategies, Social Context
英文题目：Chinese Americans’ Cultural Identity Construction: A Case Study of Three Chinese American Writers
该论文通过传记研究方法研究三位亚裔美国作家的文化身份及其构建。作者运用统一的理论框架对Maxine Hong Kingston, Amy Tan, Iris Chang的文化身份是什么及其是如何构建的进行了分析和阐述。该理论框架由Jacques Lacan的镜像理论、Stuart Hall的文化身份理论以及 Homi Bhabha的文化揉杂理论组成。通过上述研究方法和理论框架的分析，作者认为这三位作家在经历了文化困惑、文化认同以及跨文化身份建构这三个阶段后最终构建了跨文化的文化身份。
This paper studies three Chinese American writers’ cultural identity and its construction through biographical research methodology. The author employs a unified theoretical framework to analyze and illuminate the cultural identity and its construction of Maxine Hong Kingston, Amy Tan, and Iris Chang. This theoretical framework consists of Jacques Lacan’s mirror stage theory, Stuart Hall’s cultural identity theory, and Homi Bhabha’s cultural hybridity theory. Under the above-mentioned research methodology and theoretical framework, the author contends that these three writers all constructed their cross-cultural identity after experiencing three stages—cultural confusion, cultural recognition, and cross-culture identity construction.
Keywords: Chinese American writers, cultural identity construction, biographical research methodology, mirror stage theory, cultural identity theory, cultural hybridity theory
英文题目：Identity Negotiation and Reconstruction in and through Re-entry Adjustment：the Experiences of Chinese Student Returnees from the U.S.
AbstractThis study examines Chinese student returnees’ re-entry perception, strategic positioning, and reconstructed identities in and through re-entry adjustment. Previous studies have explored the roles of Chinese student returnees as economic and academic force, but few examining their identity changes through social perceptions and interactions upon return. This research seeks to understand their diverse and fluid re-entry experiences and contextualized construction of identities. The study builds on three major theoretical frameworks, which are social identity theory, differential adaptation theory, and co-cultural theory. To provide a more nuanced and in-depth description of Chinese student returnees’ identity changes, qualitative methodology is adopted. Nineteen Chinese students who returned from America were interviewed to share their experiences of coming back to the home country. Data garnered from the interviews are organized into two finding chapters.
Guided by thematic analysis, the study first discusses Chinese student returnees’ migration anticipation which is assumed to be relevant to their re-entry interaction and identity transformation. The participants' re-entry experiences can be explained by three dimensions: home-favored perception, social misfit, and in-between adaptation. Meanwhile, the Chinese student returnees develop strategies to cope with re-entry culture shock. On the one hand, they resist taking assimilated approach to re-adapt to the home society, but manage to act upon their own wills in re-adjustment. On the other hand, they adopt co-cultural approaches, including intragroup networking, avoiding, and educating others. Based on the complex re-entry perception and practices, the Chinese returnees negotiate and reconstruct their identities in three categories: essentially Chinese, a minority in the homeland, and an integrated identity mediated by both cultures.
These findings suggest that Chinese student returnees’ re-entry experiences are diverse rather than linear process-oriented. Their re-entry adjustment and identity reconfiguration are contextually and situationally based. In the dynamic re-entry process, they gain new identities which are different from the past selves before and during the sojourn. The study broadens the lens to interpret student returnees’ re-entry experiences and gives suggestions to those encountering reverse culture shock.
Keywords: Chinese student returnees, re-entry adjustment, re-entry culture shock, differential adaptation, identity reconstruction